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Following the arrival of COVID-19, amongst the considerations that entities in the UAE have been making is whether contractual obligations could still be performed in light of various restrictions that have been imposed. This article explores how the law of Force Majeure operates in the UAE and legal considerations that parties in the maritime industry could make.
Subject to public policy and statutory provisions, UAE law upholds parties’ freedom of contract. Most contracts would include a force majeure clause, and where such clause is absent, contracting parties may fall back on Article 273 of UAE Federal Law No. 5 of 1985 (the “Civil Code”) to invoke force majeure:
“(1) In contracts binding on both parties, if force majeure supervenes which makes the performance of the contract impossible, the corresponding obligation shall cease, and the contract shall be automatically cancelled.
(2) In the case of partial impossibility, that part of the contract which is impossible shall be extinguished, and the same shall apply to temporary impossibility in continuing contracts, and in those two cases it shall be permissible for : the obligee to cancel the contract provided that the obligor is so aware.”
In essence, a Force Majeure is a supervening event rendering impossible the performance of an obligation under an agreement between parties. Whilst courts are not bound to follow the decisions of higher courts, judgments of the UAE’s highest court (the Court of Cassation) are typically followed. Therefore it would be helpful to note that the Court of Cassation had in two judgments mentioned that the Force Majeure must be unforeseeable and unavoidable (Dubai Court of Cassation Judgment No. 101 of 2014 (Civil); and Dubai Court of Cassation Judgment No. 49 of 2014). It follows that a Force Majeure declaration is likely to fail if the underlying contract was entered into when public authorities have been imposing ever stricter restrictions because it was foreseeable that that the obligation(s) would be impossible to perform.
Whilst it is good practice to specify what are force majeure events in an agreement, it is not necessary for the words “natural disaster”, “war”, “disease”, “pandemic”, “epidemic” and the like to be expressly mentioned in a force majeure clause for Force Majeure to be successfully declared or argued in court. The key ingredient is impossibility of performance. Mere hardship does not qualify as Force Majeure.
If Force Majeure under Article 273 of the Civil Code could not be established, the doctrine of Exceptional Circumstances under Article 249 of the Civil Code may be an alternative. Unlike Force Majeure, which concerns impossibility, the Doctrine of Exceptional Circumstances applies to excessively difficult obligations “threatening grave loss”. Also unlike the consequence of successfully establishing Force Majeure (where the party declaring Force Majeure will not need to perform the relevant obligation), the party successfully establishing that exceptional circumstances took place would have its relevant obligation(s) adjusted to a level that the Court opines is reasonable.
Under the laws of the Dubai International Financial Centre (“DIFC”), Force Majeure is implied in Article 82 of DIFC Law No.6 of 2004. If an agreement is governed by DIFC law, non-performance by a party is excused if that party proves that the non-performance was due to an impediment beyond its control and that it could not reasonably be expected to have taken the impediment into account at the time of the conclusion of the contract or to have avoided or overcome it or its consequences. However, a Force Majeure event will not excuse a party where its obligation is a “mere obligation to pay”.
Article 273 of the Civil Code as discussed above lays down how Force Majeure operates generally under UAE statutes, and that a successful declaration of Force Majeure may result in cancellation of contracts. However, UAE Federal Law No. 26 of 1981 further specifies certain rights and liabilities of parties in maritime and shipping scenarios concerning Force Majeure, that the latter parties should note.
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Despite the ongoing restrictions faced by parties in the maritime and logistics sectors, many transactions and operations in these sectors are still continuing. Due to the evolving circumstances, it is suggested that the following be considered to be ahead of the potential hurdles and hiccups:
Also read: Force Majeure Event in the UAE
Al Tamimi & Company’s Transport & Logistics team regularly advises on maritime, shipping, trucking, logistics, and customs matters. For further information please contact Omar Omar (email@example.com) or Gabriel Yuen (firstname.lastname@example.org)