The final Law Update of 2022 is here, and it’s packed full of articles. The double edition features two focus areas, first is a spotlight on Energy and Resources and second we feature a collection of articles on Transport and Logistics. The developments occurring in these sectors in the MENA region are unprecedented and our lawyers cover vast themes for you.
The Energy and Resources focus features topics such as diversifying energy resources, solar PV, mining in the Middle East, renewable energy and green hydrogen. From a transport perspective, we draw attention to the Bahrain metro project, discuss the challenges and remedies associated with the repossession of an aircraft, and there is advice on what to consider should a party vary the terms of a shipping contract.
This edition navigates you through updates from across jurisdictions such as, Oman, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Iraq, Qatar, and the UAE. Each article is timely and provides insights into legal issues and cases that are affecting these sectors across the region.Read the full edition
The enactment of the UAE’s 2020 Trust Law is a significant development in the scope of trust jurisprudence in the UAE. By introducing Anglo-American trust arrangements into the UAE’s civil legal environment, the UAE legislature has reformed the concept of beneficial property interests in a manner that is essentially alien to the civil law.
Internationally trust arrangements, in Anglo- American legal systems, have evolved in importance over the years and have come to underpin many of the key structures and concepts that support and provide for international business and wealth management.
The new UAE Trust Law, for the first time, grants full recognition to similar trust arrangements – but within an onshore UAE legal system derived from the Egyptian civil code, not a system shaped by Anglo-American jurisprudence. In this way, the UAE Trust Law is wholly different to trust laws of the financial free zones in the UAE that have imported and transplanted the common law legal system.
Over the past three decades the UAE economy has increasingly been exposed to, and integrated with, sophisticated international business and financial practices and markets. Many UAE residents have been exposed to the sophisticated legal products which are underpinned by trust arrangements.
As a consequence, there is an appetite in the UAE market for these legal products. They range from private family trusts to publicly traded mutual funds and securitisation structures. Although these legal products are available in the UAE’s financial free zones (DIFC and ADGM), the real weight of UAE economic activity and assets lies outside these free zones in the onshore areas.
Prior to the UAE Trust Law, free zone trust arrangements could not effectively govern dealings or enforce or establish ownership rights over UAE onshore assets, whether these comprise cash, securities, land, moveable assets or legal rights. Rather, trust arrangements and their offshore business structures could be implemented only through changes to onshore law. This is now being done, but without the creation of a surrounding and supporting common law legal environment similar to those created in the DIFC and ADGM. We note that the UAE Trust Law does not apply to trusts created in these UAE financial free zones which continue to operate under their own legislative provisions.
Any Trust to be established under the new Law must incorporate the following elements:
Every Trust must have a Settlor, defined as a person who creates the Trust and provides his or her property as Trust assets. The Settlor can create a Trust by “issuing” (signing) the Trust Instrument or by will taking effect after the death of the Settlor. The definition of a Trust Instrument makes it clear that the Settlor must sign it.
Under the Law, a Settlor must have legal capacity and may be a corporate entity. However, for any corporate Settlor the settlement transaction has to comply with corporate action/authority requirements relating to such an entity, for example board approval in the case of a joint stock company and a general assembly resolution in the case of a LLC.
It is possible for multiple Settlors to establish a Trust. In addition, the Trust Instrument can permit multiple Settlors to retain some power to control or recall individual components of the Trust Property, which can be traced back to individual Settlors.
Similar to the concept of a ‘reserved power trust’ in common law jurisdictions, the Law allows a Settlor to reserve significant amount of control under the Trust Instrument, including:
The Law contains a wide definition of eligible property, encompassing any moveable or immoveable property, anything related to such property or comprising a part of such property, and any right which exists, or may exist. It applies expressly to any property inside or outside the UAE.
For the property to be settled on the terms of a Trust, the Settlor must be either the owner or the holder of a legal right to dispose of that property prior to the settlement. The law stipulates that the property must not be encumbered with third party rights, unless the relevant third parties so consent.
In extending also to future and contingent assets, the Law further provides for an expansive concept of the type of property rights and assets that can be the subject of a declaration of Trust.
Under the Law a “Trust Instrument” is defined as a written document executed by the Settlor by which a Trust is created and the Trust terms and conditions are regulated. The law confirms that a Settlor may establish a testamentary Trust under the Settlor’s will.
UAE onshore Courts are vested under the Law with the power to create a Trust upon the request of a guardian or custodian in cases where the owner of the property lacks legal capacity. The decision of the Court must identify and determine the Trust terms, and the Court’s written decision is deemed to be a Trust Instrument.
The Law requires every Trust to be registered in the new UAE Trusts Register, and for the following elements to be identified and noted on the Register:
In the case of (2), if no period is specified, then the Trust is deemed “permanent” unless the Court orders otherwise.
The law contains a non-exhaustive list of matters which may be included in the Trust Instrument, including:
The Trust Instrument serves as a binding document on all “Interested Parties”, i.e. the Settlor, the Trustee, the Beneficiaries and the Trust Protector.
Every trust requires a trustee. To be eligible, a trustee must be either a natural person with legal capacity (i.e. of “good reputation and conduct”) or a commercial company licensed as a Professional Trustee.
It is possible for a Settlor to act as a trustee. Currently, we understand that it is intended that new requirements will be introduced for a company to be licensed as a Professional Trustee (to be set out in future regulations), which will enable private companies to act in the future as trustees for family trusts.
The law contains a number of detailed provisions regulating the appointment, removal and replacement of co-Trustees. One interesting provision allows for co-Trustees to “power-share” by dividing responsibilities amongst different powers and authorities if the Trust Instrument so permits. Whilst it does not go so far as to recognise the differing roles of custodial trustees and managing trustees (as is the case under the DIFC Trust Law), it appears clear that these provisions could accommodate and be applied for that purpose.
The powers and authorities of Trustees are detailed in the Law. In general terms:
Additionally, the Law details the positive duties of any Trustee. The most important duties are:
Other fundamental duties set out include:
Further, the Law effectively expands on the positive duties by setting out some negative duties which are:
Trustee liability is dealt with by making the trustee liable for “wilful default or gross negligence” and by providing for the invalidation of any transaction disposing of Trust Property in bad faith where a recipient was aware of such bad faith.
A Beneficiary is defined as an identifiable or class of person entitled to a right under a Trust Instrument, including a person “possibly included”. Interestingly, the definition expressly includes a person in whose favour the Trustee has authority to create any “security or right” in respect of the Trust Property, which in the author’s view might extend to a lender to the Trust with security over Trust Property.
The Law enables the Trust Instrument to provide for the rights of beneficiaries, and for this purpose the following general provisions apply:
The Law makes it clear that for a valid Trust to be established, it must be established for one or more Beneficiaries or for one or more proper Purposes (or for both).
A purpose can be either for Charitable Purposes or for Special Purposes.
A Charitable Trust is defined as one created for a “humanitarian” purpose. A Special Trust is defined as one with the purpose of “investment and employment of properties”.
The Law also permits a Trust to have multiple purposes; or to be established for a mixture of Purposes and Beneficiaries.
The Law contemplates that Special Purposes include both:
When considered in conjunction with the definition of a Special Trust, it appears that it is envisaged that any mutual funds /securitisation funds/REIT’s will take the form of Trusts established for Special Purposes.
In a significant departure from the Anglo-American concept of a trust, the Law provides that a trust is a legal entity. In common law jurisdictions a trust is viewed as a legal relationship connecting the Trustee, the Beneficiary and the Assets; it is not a distinct legal entity, and all dealings are conducted by the Trustee as a principal with rights of indemnity against the trust assets.
However, the UAE Trust Law establishes a new entity which most closely resembles civil law statutory Foundation entities. In particular, assets can be held and registered directly in the name of the incorporated Trust, and Trustees have functions which are more akin to those of general managers in the context of LLCs.
In our view, the incorporation of an UAE Trust is likely to offer significant advantages and protections in practice to settlors contemplating trust structures in the UAE, including
There are some provisions of the Trust Law which seem, at first, to envisage the Trustee being the holder/custodian of the Trust Property, but most can be read down as restricted to cash, moveable property or records. The most difficult provisions to read down are contained in Article 21, which deals with the lapse of a Trustee’s authority.
Article 21(2) requires such a Trustee to “transfer rights in respect of the Trust Property” to a new Trustee, and describes the lapsed Trustee as “custodian of the Trust Property” until the handover is complete. Article 21(4) requires the heirs of a lapsed Trustee to “transfer the Trust Property in their possession”.
Whilst the incorporation of the Trust offers clear benefits, it also raises questions about how such an entity fits into the onshore legal and regulatory system, for example:
These and other practical issues will no doubt play out quite speedily in precedents as the Law becomes known and its provisions are tested by trust practitioners active in the UAE.
As noted above, the Law requires registration of a Trust, and this is a pre-condition to enforceability and validity because the Law provides that the Trust comes into effect upon completion of the registration procedure.
We understand that the new Register of Trust Instruments will be established by future regulations.
The Law permits the appointment of a Trust Protector by the Settlor. The concept of the office of Trust Protector is to serve as a check on the Trustee.
In cases where a Trust Protector is appointed, the Law provides that the Trust Protector will:
The Law imposes negative duties on any Trust Protector:
Further, the Trust Instrument can confer the powers on the Trust Protector to appoint, replace and remove Trustees and to determine the powers and fees of any Trustee. It is also open to the Trust Instrument to make the exercise of the Trustee’s powers and authorities subject to the approval of the Trust Protector.
Significantly, a Settlor can hold the office of Trust Protector (and a Trustee cannot), and to the extent of the powers potentially retained by the Settlor in that role, and his or her continuing influence on the operation of the Trust, represents another important way in which the UAE Trust differs from trusts at common law, where the Settlor’s role and potential for variation of or influence on the Trust once created is substantially constrained.
The Competent Court is defined as the Court having the competence pursuant to the Civil Procedures Law.
The Court has extensive and significant powers under the Trust Law and, in particular, exercises oversight over Trustees accused of behaving in a dishonest or negligent fashion. The Court is also provided with powers to effectively repurpose Trusts in particular circumstances, for example where a Charitable Trust with extremely general provisions is created but specific purposes are not identified.
The Court has the additional role of providing access, upon application as required, to Trust records and Trust audits to Protectors and Beneficiaries, and of removing and replacing Trustees where circumstances demand.
The Court has the power to invalidate Trusts on a range of grounds extending to illegality, inconsistency with public policy, technical non-compliance, forgery, fraud and mistake.
Additionally, the Court may terminate a Trust where circumstances have changed, where no Beneficiary remains or where the Trust Property is depleted. Upon termination, the Court may make orders determining the manner in which Trust Property is distributed.
It is therefore clear that the Court has broad jurisdiction over the supervision and control of the affairs of every Trust, and can be asked to intervene in a wide variety of circumstances. However, the Law does not confer a general right upon any Trustee to approach the Court for guidance on any aspect of the Trustee’s duties, (and in this respect the Law contrasts with common law jurisdictions where the declaratory and advisory jurisdiction of courts of equity are a feature of trust practice).
Inevitably, a new law with no previous precedent in the civil law system will require time to be understood and the advantages of its use appreciated. Indeed, in the case of the new UAE Trust Law there are likely to be immediate challenges ahead in how onshore Trusts will operate in practice. In particular, the recognition across the UAE commercial and regulatory landscape of the UAE the new Trust Law will require all key authorities and stakeholders to understand and give effect to a new conception of property rights, where beneficial and legal interests diverge. Allied to this challenge, the onshore Courts in each Emirate will be called upon, as practice develops, to carry out extensive and wide-ranging functions in the administration of onshore Trusts. Given the relative lack of judicial history and experience in these areas, it is to be hoped that some dedicated judicial training will accompany the roll-out of the Law.
The immediate impact of the Law is nevertheless clear the fundamentals needed to establish viable trust arrangements onshore are explicitly put in place and can begin to be incorporated in business and family wealth management structures. The fundamental step has been taken to recognise the co-existence of legal and beneficial rights in the same Trust Property as part of UAE law, and it is apparent that the relations, rights, duties and powers familiar to common law trust practitioners are broadly reflected in the codified provisions, with some modifications of the Law. As a result, the UAE Trust Law is set to succeed in its objective of permitting and facilitating the type of sophisticated family and financial arrangements which are utilised in other trust jurisdictions. The Law serves to fill a number of obvious gaps in the onshore legal system, and it will likely spur major developments in onshore law and practice.