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Welcome to the latest edition of Law Update titled “Rise of Generative AI.”
In this edition, we dive into the dynamic world of Technology, Media, and Telecommunications (TMT) across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. TMT continues to play a vital role in positioning the region as an international business and social hub, driving significant growth and innovation.
Our focus in this Law Update is on the sector’s ongoing potential to advance and propel the region toward a more digital economy. We explore the benefits of embracing a digital transformation and how local authorities have responded by enhancing regulations to accommodate the evolving TMT landscape.
This edition covers a range of topics, including – the new Telecommunications & Information Technology Law in Saudi Arabia, the intricacies of trademarks in the Metaverse, and the legal challenges faced by the video game industry. Additionally, we take a regional perspective, discussing jurisdictions such as Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Oman, and Bahrain to provide a comprehensive understanding of the TMT landscape.
We hope you thoroughly enjoy this packed issue of Law Update, filled with captivating articles that address key legal issues within a vital sector for the region.Read the full edition
Grahame Nelson - Partner, Head of Office - Al Khobar - Corporate / Mergers and Acquisitions / Projects
Mohammed Negm - Senior Counsel - Litigation
These days it seems as if all roads in Saudi Arabia lead to Saudi Vision 2030 and the National Transformation Programme (NTP), the government’s strategy to modernise and diversify the Saudi economy.
Amongst other things, the government has signalled that it wants to see a far greater level of private sector participation in many areas of the economy than has previously been the case. This has led to a number of reforms designed to facilitate and pave the way for that investment and especially foreign investment.
Investors want to know how their investment will be protected and how effective those protections will be if they need to be relied upon. Amongst other things, this includes knowing what their rights and obligations will be if their investment runs into financial difficulty.
The lack of a modern fit-for-purpose insolvency regime has been a major bugbear for businesses, professional advisors and others doing business in Saudi Arabia. Some of the problems encountered include the following:
In 2016, the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Commerce and Investment (MOCI) announced plans to issue a Bankruptcy Law and published a draft of the proposed Law. This followed on from a policy paper published by MOCI in 2015, which sketched the broad outline of a proposed Bankruptcy Law.
The long awaited new Bankruptcy Law (New Law) was published in the Official Gazette on 23 February 2018, and is expected to come into force by no later than the third week of August 2018.
Saudi courts have traditionally been reluctant to make an order declaring a debtor to be bankrupt, until all feasible methods of debt enforcement have been exhausted. Even then, some judges have been unwilling to make a bankruptcy order. This had resulted in protracted and in many cases unsuccessful debt enforcement.
There has also been little or no effective protection for a debtor whose business is facing financial difficulties, but which remains financially viable. In practice, where there are several creditors there may be no scope for that debtor to trade his way out of those difficulties and restore the financial health of his business. However, preserving the business in some form may be in the best interests of most if not all creditors and this especially the case with small creditors – even if it means receiving less than their due.
The New Law contains many of the features of a modern western styled insolvency regime reflecting the extensive benchmarking process, which occurred prior to it being drafted as part of its development. As well as establishing some new forms of insolvency administration, the New Law tidies up some issues which have caused problems to creditors when dealing with insolvent debtors.
The New Law runs to 231 Articles and this article summarises the headline changes.
Aims of the New Law
The New Law aims to:
To whom does the New Law apply?
The New Law has an extended reach and applies to:
The New Law will also apply to regulated entities such as banks, insurance companies and telecommunications companies. However, it preserves the right of certain regulators (for example, Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency and Capital Market Authority) to issue regulations for their own regulated entities covering bankruptcy issues. They may make regulations excluding regulated entities from provisions of this law or impose additional regulations, obligations or requirements.
Insolvency and Bankruptcy
The New Law distinguishes between a person who is “Insolvent” and a person who is “Bankrupt”.
An “Insolvent” is a debtor who fails to discharge a debt on its due payment date. It is unclear whether this is intended to be a departure from the generally understood meaning of insolvency being an inability to pay debts as they fall due. The definition in the New Law might be read as suggesting that the failure to pay any debt on its due date means he is “insolvent”. It remains to be seen whether the Saudi courts take that view.
A “Bankrupt” is a debtor whose debts have consumed all his assets.
Logically a Bankrupt must also be an Insolvent. However, an Insolvent will not be a Bankrupt unless he has no his assets. Taken literally this suggests that the existence of any assets would preclude a debtor being a Bankrupt.
The New Law establishes work out procedures which are intended to forestall the need for liquidation where a person is Bankrupt or Insolvent. These are summarised below:
The debtor may apply to the Court for the initiation Preventative Settlement Procedure if:
The debtor may request a suspension of claims and the court may order a temporary extension for up to 90 days which can be extended, provided the period of suspension does not exceed 180 days.
During the period of suspension, claims against the debtor and enforcement procedures are stayed.
Subject to stated exceptions:
This is defined as follows:
“Procedure that aims at facilitating the debtor’s coming to terms with his creditors regarding the financial restructuring of his business under supervision of a Financial Restructuring Officer.”
The debtor, a creditor or the regulator of the debtor, may make the financial restructuring application.
The court and creditors whose claims represent two thirds of the value of debts in the same class must approve the financial proposal.
The request for a financial reorganisation results in the suspension of claims until:
If the court approves the Financial Restructuring Proposal it will appoint a trustee (the Financial Restructuring Officer) who will, amongst other things, supervise the debtor’s activity during the financial restructuring to ensure fairness of the procedure and its execution. The debtor will also need to obtain the trustee’s approval before undertaking any of a large number of specified actions that may have an impact on his asset and liability position.
Once the court approves the financial structuring, it applies to all creditors.
The debtor, a creditor or the regulator of the debtor may apply to the court to initiate a liquidation procedure for the debtor if the debtor is insolvent or bankrupt. This can be done where:
Given the alternative forms of insolvency administration provided for by the New Law, liquidation should be regarded as last resort procedure.
A liquidation trustee is appointed and the trustee will assume the management of the debtor’s assets.
Liquidation will result in the assets of the bankrupt being sold and the proceeds distributed amongst the creditors under the management of a liquidation trustee.
The liquidation trustee will liquidate the debtor’s assets, list debts, and distribute proceeds of liquidation between creditors according to their debt’s priority.
Upon completion of liquidation, if there are no surplus assets, the liquidation trustee will take the necessary measures to wind up the company (if the debtor is a company).
There are special arrangements for the liquidation of small debtors.
Other Noteworthy Changes
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