The final Law Update of 2022 is here, and it’s packed full of articles. The double edition features two focus areas, first is a spotlight on Energy and Resources and second we feature a collection of articles on Transport and Logistics. The developments occurring in these sectors in the MENA region are unprecedented and our lawyers cover vast themes for you.
The Energy and Resources focus features topics such as diversifying energy resources, solar PV, mining in the Middle East, renewable energy and green hydrogen. From a transport perspective, we draw attention to the Bahrain metro project, discuss the challenges and remedies associated with the repossession of an aircraft, and there is advice on what to consider should a party vary the terms of a shipping contract.
This edition navigates you through updates from across jurisdictions such as, Oman, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Iraq, Qatar, and the UAE. Each article is timely and provides insights into legal issues and cases that are affecting these sectors across the region.Read the full edition
You are a bank or large derivatives counterparty in the MENA region and your international counterparties have been enquiring if you are in scope for regulatory initial margin and if you have started implementing regulatory initial margin. Given you are operating in the MENA region, you are wondering whether the regulatory initial margin applies to you. In this article, we focus on certain requirements of regulatory initial margin relevant when dealing with European counterparties.
As a background, after the global financial crisis, the global regulators focused on revamping the over-the-counter (‘OTC’) derivatives market and introduced a range of measures including transaction reporting, clearing margin requirements for non centrally cleared derivatives.
The European Union adopted Regulation (EU) No 648/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 July 2012 on OTC derivatives, central counterparties and trade repositories (‘EMIR’), as amended, as the umbrella regulation in this respect. More specifically, the Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2016/2251 supplemented the EMIR in respect of the margin rules for uncleared derivatives (‘Margin Rules’). The Margin Rules include requirements to collect and post variation margin and initial margin (‘IM’).
IM coverage is effective in global jurisdictions such as the United States, Canada, Brazil, Switzerland, Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore and Australia among others in addition to the EU with similar requirements.
IM is defined as “the collateral collected by a counterparty to cover its current and potential future exposure in the interval between the last collection of margin and the liquidation of positions or hedging of market risk following a default of the other counterparty”. The IM should be collected on a gross basis without netting amounts collected by each party and segregated to protect from the insolvency or default of the collecting party.
IM requirements apply where both parties to non centrally cleared derivatives are:
Most relevant to a Covered TCE, IM requirements apply (directly or indirectly):
The IM requirements apply where both counterparties have, or belong to groups each of which has, an aggregate average notional amount (‘AANA’) of non centrally cleared derivatives, for the months of March, April and May of the preceding year, that is above €8 billion (approximately US$9.5 billion). The AANA should be calculated at the entity level or the group level if the entity belongs to a group.
The IM requirements have been phased out over several years with the largest entities coming into scope at the start.
On 3 April 2020, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (‘BCBS’) and the International Organisation of Securities Commissions (‘IOSCO’) announced their agreement to defer the deadline for completing the final two implementation phases of the IM requirements by one year. This additional time was recommended, bearing in mind the immediate impact of COVID-19 on the parties. The recommendation would now have to be formally approved by EU regulators.
These changes would result in covered counterparties with an AANA above €50 billion (approximately US$60 billion) becoming subject to the requirement to exchange initial margin from 1 September 2021, while covered counterparties with an AANA above €8 billion (approximately US$9.5 billion) becoming subject to the requirement from 1 September 2022.
The main obligations in respect of IM under the Margin Rules are:
An area of concern for EU counterparties was their obligation to post collateral to Covered TCEs when the legal enforceability of netting and/or segregation in the relevant third party could not be conclusively determined.
Accordingly, the exchange of IM under the Margin Rules requires that an independent legal review of a netting agreement or an exchange of collateral agreement be legally enforced with certainty at all times and the requirements of segregation be met. When an independent legal review confirms that these standards may not be met, the Margin Rules grant certain limited exemptions.
While the issues raised in this note identify some of the more pressing questions to understanding when dealing with regulatory IM, they are certainly not exhaustive. Banks and other institutions in the MENA region dealing in derivative transactions should ensure a full understanding of the rules and requirements when dealing with international counterparties.