Our first edition of 2022 focuses on Healthcare and Life Sciences. It is a sector that will once again have the spotlight on it this year as we continue to tackle COVID-19 and its subsequent variants. While the pandemic continues to challenge the sector, governments across the region forge ahead with their plans to expand and upgrade healthcare systems and develop robust world-class healthcare infrastructure.
For the region, healthcare is a vital pillar in diversifying its economies, both locally and as medical tourism hubs. To underpin this, healthcare authorities across the region continue to implement frameworks and regulations that provide structure and accountability.
In this edition, you have unique access to great insights and expert commentary on a number of pertinent healthcare regulatory developments. You will find a topical mix of articles; for example, our lawyers discuss vaccines and returning to work during the pandemic. They take you through several other areas, including stem cell research in Bahrain, clinical research laws in Egypt, and Saudi medical device and pharmaceutical laws.Take a read of the edition
There have been a series of reforms in Bahrain over the last couple of years in an attempt by the government to re-establish Bahrain’s position as a regional financial hub in the Middle East. One such change has been the introduction of investment limited partnerships and protected cell companies (which we discussed in the December/January 2017 edition of Law Update). This article focuses on investment limited partnerships and its commercial advantages from a banking and finance perspective.
Investment Limited Partnerships (‘ILP’)
An investment fund is a pooled investment vehicle which acquires, holds and disposes of equity and equity related investments in unlisted companies. The investment strategy of a private equity fund will specify its target sectors (for example pharmaceutical companies) and its geographical target area (for example Europe). There are many legal structures available for such an investment fund such as a company (in Bahrain this is generally a joint stock company); an investment limited partnership or trusts and contractual arrangements. The limited partnership is the vehicle of choice worldwide for closed-ended investment funds.
The Law on Investment Limited Partnerships (Law No. 18 of 2016) was implemented on 4 August 2016 (‘ILP Law’). An ILP can only undertake the Permitted Activities (which are exactly the same activities a PCC can undertake). An ILP is similar to a limited partnership company in that a general (defined as an ‘Active Partner’ in the ILP Law) partner’s liability is unlimited and a sleeping (defined as a ‘Dormant Partner’ in the ILP Law) partner’s liability is unlimited. ILPs are regulated by the CBB. Bahrain is now a challenger to offshore fund jurisdictions as it has a state of the art ILP Law; it is a tax advantaged regime and it has a sophisticated regulatory regime.
Management and decision making in an ILP
The general partners manage the fund or contract with the manager. The general partners sign on behalf of the fund. The limited partners cannot take part in management. There are safe harbour provisions for limited partners including:
Duties of the general partner
The general partners have a duty:
Limited partner rights
The limited partners have the following rights:
Requirements for registration of an ILP
Registration of an ILP requires a:
Investment Fund Partnership Agreement
An investment fund partnership agreement (“ILP Agreement”) is a written binding contract between all the partners. The ILP Agreement is filed with the CBB. The ILP Agreement must contain the following minimum information, namely:
Advantages of an ILP
Limited partnerships are the most popular structure for closed ended funds internationally and its structure is understood by international fund investors. ILPs allows clear legislative backing to popular fund structure choice internationally. It also provides an additional option to fund promoters. ILPs catches up with neighbouring Gulf Cooperation Council (“GCC”) jurisdictions namely Dubai, Abu Dhabi and Qatar. ILPs also permit clear options to be given on investors’ rights and permits flexibility of constitutional documents.
ILPs clearly designates responsible entity for fund management and control. It allows flexibility for division of profits from a fund. It avoids corporate requirements for capital maintenance. Further, it places clear fiduciary responsibilities on the general partner. ILPs provides investors access and transparency. ILPs are the first GCC ‘onshore’ limited partnership.
With partnership laws being well established in common law jurisdictions, such as London, New York, and Singapore, the ILP Law allows firms in and/or from such jurisdictions to operate in Bahrain within a legal framework with which they are familiar. The ILP Law also supports investment companies in establishing financial investment funds, and enables them to access new funding mechanisms.
Bahrain is now a challenger to offshore fund jurisdictions as it has a state of the art limited partnership law, a tax advantaged regime and a sophisticated regulatory regime. It is hoped that the ILP Law will provide a strong boost to the financial sector in Bahrain and support growth in real estate funds, private equity funds, venture capital and technology funds, start-ups, and Shariah-compliant funds, as well as captive insurance. However, as the ILP Law and ILPs have only recently been implemented in Bahrain, it may take some time before ILPs are widely adopted and are the structure of choice for investment funds in Bahrain. Nevertheless, it is expected that ILPs will enhance Bahrain’s competitiveness in the financial services sector by making it easier to structure investment activities.