The final Law Update of 2022 is here, and it’s packed full of articles. The double edition features two focus areas, first is a spotlight on Energy and Resources and second we feature a collection of articles on Transport and Logistics. The developments occurring in these sectors in the MENA region are unprecedented and our lawyers cover vast themes for you.
The Energy and Resources focus features topics such as diversifying energy resources, solar PV, mining in the Middle East, renewable energy and green hydrogen. From a transport perspective, we draw attention to the Bahrain metro project, discuss the challenges and remedies associated with the repossession of an aircraft, and there is advice on what to consider should a party vary the terms of a shipping contract.
This edition navigates you through updates from across jurisdictions such as, Oman, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Iraq, Qatar, and the UAE. Each article is timely and provides insights into legal issues and cases that are affecting these sectors across the region.Read the full edition
There have been a series of reforms in Bahrain over the last couple of years in an attempt by the government to re-establish Bahrain’s position as a regional financial hub in the Middle East. One such change has been the introduction of investment limited partnerships and protected cell companies (which we discussed in the December/January 2017 edition of Law Update). This article focuses on investment limited partnerships and its commercial advantages from a banking and finance perspective.
Investment Limited Partnerships (‘ILP’)
An investment fund is a pooled investment vehicle which acquires, holds and disposes of equity and equity related investments in unlisted companies. The investment strategy of a private equity fund will specify its target sectors (for example pharmaceutical companies) and its geographical target area (for example Europe). There are many legal structures available for such an investment fund such as a company (in Bahrain this is generally a joint stock company); an investment limited partnership or trusts and contractual arrangements. The limited partnership is the vehicle of choice worldwide for closed-ended investment funds.
The Law on Investment Limited Partnerships (Law No. 18 of 2016) was implemented on 4 August 2016 (‘ILP Law’). An ILP can only undertake the Permitted Activities (which are exactly the same activities a PCC can undertake). An ILP is similar to a limited partnership company in that a general (defined as an ‘Active Partner’ in the ILP Law) partner’s liability is unlimited and a sleeping (defined as a ‘Dormant Partner’ in the ILP Law) partner’s liability is unlimited. ILPs are regulated by the CBB. Bahrain is now a challenger to offshore fund jurisdictions as it has a state of the art ILP Law; it is a tax advantaged regime and it has a sophisticated regulatory regime.
Management and decision making in an ILP
The general partners manage the fund or contract with the manager. The general partners sign on behalf of the fund. The limited partners cannot take part in management. There are safe harbour provisions for limited partners including:
Duties of the general partner
The general partners have a duty:
Limited partner rights
The limited partners have the following rights:
Requirements for registration of an ILP
Registration of an ILP requires a:
Investment Fund Partnership Agreement
An investment fund partnership agreement (“ILP Agreement”) is a written binding contract between all the partners. The ILP Agreement is filed with the CBB. The ILP Agreement must contain the following minimum information, namely:
Advantages of an ILP
Limited partnerships are the most popular structure for closed ended funds internationally and its structure is understood by international fund investors. ILPs allows clear legislative backing to popular fund structure choice internationally. It also provides an additional option to fund promoters. ILPs catches up with neighbouring Gulf Cooperation Council (“GCC”) jurisdictions namely Dubai, Abu Dhabi and Qatar. ILPs also permit clear options to be given on investors’ rights and permits flexibility of constitutional documents.
ILPs clearly designates responsible entity for fund management and control. It allows flexibility for division of profits from a fund. It avoids corporate requirements for capital maintenance. Further, it places clear fiduciary responsibilities on the general partner. ILPs provides investors access and transparency. ILPs are the first GCC ‘onshore’ limited partnership.
With partnership laws being well established in common law jurisdictions, such as London, New York, and Singapore, the ILP Law allows firms in and/or from such jurisdictions to operate in Bahrain within a legal framework with which they are familiar. The ILP Law also supports investment companies in establishing financial investment funds, and enables them to access new funding mechanisms.
Bahrain is now a challenger to offshore fund jurisdictions as it has a state of the art limited partnership law, a tax advantaged regime and a sophisticated regulatory regime. It is hoped that the ILP Law will provide a strong boost to the financial sector in Bahrain and support growth in real estate funds, private equity funds, venture capital and technology funds, start-ups, and Shariah-compliant funds, as well as captive insurance. However, as the ILP Law and ILPs have only recently been implemented in Bahrain, it may take some time before ILPs are widely adopted and are the structure of choice for investment funds in Bahrain. Nevertheless, it is expected that ILPs will enhance Bahrain’s competitiveness in the financial services sector by making it easier to structure investment activities.