Our first edition of 2022 focuses on Healthcare and Life Sciences. It is a sector that will once again have the spotlight on it this year as we continue to tackle COVID-19 and its subsequent variants. While the pandemic continues to challenge the sector, governments across the region forge ahead with their plans to expand and upgrade healthcare systems and develop robust world-class healthcare infrastructure.
For the region, healthcare is a vital pillar in diversifying its economies, both locally and as medical tourism hubs. To underpin this, healthcare authorities across the region continue to implement frameworks and regulations that provide structure and accountability.
In this edition, you have unique access to great insights and expert commentary on a number of pertinent healthcare regulatory developments. You will find a topical mix of articles; for example, our lawyers discuss vaccines and returning to work during the pandemic. They take you through several other areas, including stem cell research in Bahrain, clinical research laws in Egypt, and Saudi medical device and pharmaceutical laws.Take a read of the edition
Egypt’s new data protection law has been a long time coming. Media reports over the last year or two have resulted in ambiguity as to the status of the draft law.
We are pleased to advise that Egypt’s Personal Data Protection Law was passed on 13 July 2020 and published on 15 July 2020. It will come into force on 14 October 2020, and the Executive Regulations are expected by 14 April 2021.
The Personal Data Protection Law introduces a variety of compliance requirements, as well as some significant criminal penalties. Corporate clients processing personal data in Egypt, or outside Egypt in respect of individuals in Egypt, should familiarise themselves with the requirements and ensure compliance as soon as possible.
The Personal Data Protection Law defines ‘Personal Data’ as any data related to an identified natural person, or to a natural person identifiable, directly or indirectly, by reference to any other data, such as name, voice, picture, identification number, online identifier, or any data that identifies psychological, health, economic, cultural or social identity. ‘Sensitive Personal Data’ is defined as Personal Data that discloses psychological, mental, physical or genetic health, biometric data, financial data, religious beliefs, political opinions or security situation; and Personal Data relating to children is deemed to be Sensitive Personal Data.
The Personal Data Protection Law prohibits the processing of personal data except with the consent of the data subject, or where otherwise permitted by law.
Data Subjects have various rights under the Personal Data Protection Law. These include the right to:
With the exception of the right to be notified of a personal data breach, the Personal Data Protection Law contemplates data controllers or data processors being able to charge data subjects a fee in respect of the exercise of these rights.
Subject to certain exceptions, the Personal Data Protection Law contains a general prohibition on the transfer of Personal Data to recipients located outside Egypt except with the permission of the (yet to be established) Egyptian data protection centre/authority (‘Egyptian DPA’) and where the level of protection provided is not less than that provided in Egypt pursuant to the Personal Data Protection Law. The Executive Regulations will specify the policies, standards, guidelines, and rules necessary for transferring Personal Data across borders.
The exceptions to the prohibition on transfers of Personal Data to places outside Egypt may be summarised as follows:
The Personal Data Protection Law contemplates circumstances where a Data Controller or Data Processor may, with the permission of the Egyptian DPA, allow other Data Controllers or Data Processors outside Egypt to have access to Personal Data. These include circumstances where the purposes for which they have access to the Personal Data is identical, where such access is in the legitimate interests of the Data Subjects, the Data Controllers or the Data Processors, and where the level of legal and technical protection to the subject Personal Data is not less than that to which the Personal Data would be subject in Egypt. Again, the Executive Regulations will specify the related policies, standards, guidelines, and rules necessary for transferring Personal Data across borders in this context.
The Egyptian DPA is responsible for enforcement of the requirements of the Personal Data Protection Law at an administrative level. Without prejudice to any criminal or civil liability that may apply, the Egyptian DPA may issue notices in respect of non-compliance, directing those responsible to address the instance of non-compliance within a specific period of time. If the issue is not addressed, the Egyptian DPA may impose administrative penalties, including suspension or withdrawal of licences or accreditations, publication of details of the non-compliance in the media, and making the relevant Data Controller or Data Processor subject, at their own expense, to technical supervision by the Egyptian DPA to ensure compliance with the requirements of the Personal Data Protection Law.
The Personal Data Protection Law also provides for a variety of criminal offences, with a range of penalties, including fines and imprisonment. These include:
These are examples of some offences and penalties; others are set out in the Personal Data Protection Law. The penalties specified are without prejudice to any harsher penalties that may be provided for in any other law. Employees of corporate entities, as well as corporate entities themselves, may be responsible for the offences, depending on the circumstances of the offence.
While the Executive Regulations have yet to be issued, corporate clients processing personal data in Egypt, or outside Egypt in respect of individuals in Egypt, should start to familiarise themselves with the requirements of the new law, and start taking steps to be in a position to ensure compliance.