The final Law Update of 2022 is here, and it’s packed full of articles. The double edition features two focus areas, first is a spotlight on Energy and Resources and second we feature a collection of articles on Transport and Logistics. The developments occurring in these sectors in the MENA region are unprecedented and our lawyers cover vast themes for you.
The Energy and Resources focus features topics such as diversifying energy resources, solar PV, mining in the Middle East, renewable energy and green hydrogen. From a transport perspective, we draw attention to the Bahrain metro project, discuss the challenges and remedies associated with the repossession of an aircraft, and there is advice on what to consider should a party vary the terms of a shipping contract.
This edition navigates you through updates from across jurisdictions such as, Oman, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Iraq, Qatar, and the UAE. Each article is timely and provides insights into legal issues and cases that are affecting these sectors across the region.Read the full edition
June 2017 witnessed the introduction by the Central Bank of Bahrain (“CBB”) of a regulatory sandbox aimed at enabling firms to test and develop their products in a virtual space. The introduction of the regime positions the Kingdom of Bahrain (“Bahrain”) as only the second state within the Gulf Cooperation Council to implement such a framework. This article provides an overview of the new framework, including eligibility requirements and the application procedure and timelines.
A regulatory sandbox can be considered to be a framework and process that facilitates and encourages the development of the financial technology (“FinTech”) sector in a safe, measured and pragmatic manner. The virtual space created by such a framework provides a safe area in which FinTech businesses (both established and start-ups) can test and refine their technology based innovative products, services and platforms without being immediately burdened by the usual regulatory and financial requirements which would otherwise apply to their activities. The effect is that FinTech firms are able to experiment with their products and services for a specified timeframe within a partially deregulated environment where the firms are able to offer their products and services to customers, but where risks to customers (and to the wider financial system as a whole) are mitigated none the less.
Key characteristics of the Bahrain Regulatory Sandbox
Some of the particularly notable features of the Bahrain regulatory sandbox include the following:-
The key eligibility criteria to be satisfied by applicants include the following, all of which must be evidentially demonstrated to the satisfaction of the CBB:
Applicants are required to submit their application in writing to the CBB using the template CBB application form, attaching all relevant supporting documentation. The application form includes sections in which applicants must provide details of the following:
The CBB has the right to relax certain requirements on a case by case basis.
Upon receipt of the completed application and all accompanying documentation together with the application fee (current set at one hundred Bahraini Dinars) the CBB will review the application and endeavour to respond to the applicant within fifteen days, either approving or rejecting the applicant’s application.
Where approved, the applicant is then able to enter the regulatory sandbox in accordance with the terms and conditions of the framework and the applicant’s application and commence the testing of its product or service based solution. The CBB have indicated that arrangements have been put in place with the other relevant Bahraini government authorities (for example, the Ministry of Industry Commerce and Tourism and the Labour Market Regulatory Authority) to enable applicants to, for example, employ and sponsor (for visa purposes) employees in Bahrain during the testing phase. Full details of these arrangements and how they operate are awaited.
Whilst in the regulatory sandbox, applicants are required to adhere to the relevant CBB regulations with regards to Know Your Customer (KYC), Anti-Money Laundering (AML) and Countering Financing of Terrorism (CFT). Additionally, in so far as the applicant will as part of its sandbox testing be receiving any money from the volunteer customers, the applicant is required to entrust the handling of these funds to CBB licensed retail banks.
At the end of the designated sandbox period (which as mentioned, is a maximum of nine months with the possibility of an entirely discretional extension of three months) the applicant exits the regulatory sandbox, and may apply for the relevant CBB licence depending on the precise activities of the applicant.
Since the launch of the new framework, six entrants have so far been welcomed into the regulatory sandbox, including London based Tramonex (a forex start-up focused on facilitating conversion and settlement services to automate cross border transaction); Dubai firm Now Money (one of the first FinTech companies in the Gulf to use mobile banking technology to provide accounts, financial inclusion and a range of low cost money remittance options to low-income workers); and Belfrics Global (a Malaysian based Bitcoin technology provider).
The CBB has also established a dedicated FinTech Unit within the CBB with the mandate of ensuring the provision of the best services to individual and corporate licensees in the financial sector. The FinTech Unit is responsible for the approval process to participate in the regulatory sandbox, as well as supervision of licensed companies’ activities and operations, including cloud computing, payment and settlement systems, and monitoring technical and regulatory developments in the FinTech field.
The introduction of the new framework and the creation of a dedicated FinTech Unit within the CBB is consistent with Bahrain’s continued focus on further developing the Kingdom as the emerging FinTech and financial services hub of the Middle East region, promoting increased competitiveness and the encouraging the embracing of new technologies. At the same time, the safeguards built into the scheme will assist to maintain the required level of consumer protection and regulatory oversight which have long established Bahrain as one of key financial sector hubs in the region.