The final Law Update of 2022 is here, and it’s packed full of articles. The double edition features two focus areas, first is a spotlight on Energy and Resources and second we feature a collection of articles on Transport and Logistics. The developments occurring in these sectors in the MENA region are unprecedented and our lawyers cover vast themes for you.
The Energy and Resources focus features topics such as diversifying energy resources, solar PV, mining in the Middle East, renewable energy and green hydrogen. From a transport perspective, we draw attention to the Bahrain metro project, discuss the challenges and remedies associated with the repossession of an aircraft, and there is advice on what to consider should a party vary the terms of a shipping contract.
This edition navigates you through updates from across jurisdictions such as, Oman, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Iraq, Qatar, and the UAE. Each article is timely and provides insights into legal issues and cases that are affecting these sectors across the region.Read the full edition
As you may well be aware, the European Union (EU) has introduced new legislation on the protection of personal data – the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). The GDPR will come into effect on 25 May 2018, and businesses in Europe are frantically trying to get their houses in order, so that their processing of personal data relating to identifiable natural persons is compliant with the legal requirements.
Because of the expanded territorial scope of the GDPR, businesses based outside the EU – including businesses in the Middle East – will need to comply with the GDPR in some circumstances.
Which non-EU businesses are caught under the GDPR?
The GDPR applies to non-EU entities that are ‘controllers’ and ‘processors’ processing personal data of individuals who are in the EU, if the processing activities relate to:
GDPR’s indirect application to non-EU businesses
The GDPR provisions will also apply indirectly to non-EU businesses that have agreements under which they carry out data processing activities on behalf of an EU business. An EU data controller is expressly required by the GDPR to have a contract with a data processor – whether or not the processor is located in the EU – that stipulates certain prescribed matters.
Obligations on non-EU businesses in relation to international transfers
The GDPR restricts the transfer of personal data to recipients in countries outside the European Economic Area (EEA) unless particular conditions are met. The restrictions are intended to prevent the level of protection provided by the GDPR from being ‘watered down’ or undermined when personal data is transferred to other countries that do not offer the same level of protection to personal data.
The fines for non-compliance with the GDPR can be very significant, and depend on the specific article of the GDPR that has been breached. In addition to administrative fines, the supervisory authorities can also impose a range of corrective measures or sanctions. These include imposing a temporary or permanent ban on data processing; ordering the rectification, restriction or erasure of data; and suspending data transfers to third countries. Separately, the GDPR also gives individuals the right to claim compensation directly from the controller or processor for damages suffered due to an infringement of the GDPR.
Appointment of an EU representative
In certain circumstances, there may even be an obligation on an entity operating outside the EU to appoint an EU representative to act as a point of contact for the EU personal data subjects and regulators on all issues relation to personal data processing.
What to do?
The GDPR is a complex area of legal compliance, with ramifications for all companies who have activities in the EU, irrespective of whether their operations are actually based within the EU or elsewhere.
By 25 May 2018 all non-EU businesses should have determined:
This does not mean it is too late to consider and address data protection compliance, including whether the GDPR applies to your business. If there is any likelihood that GDPR affects your business, we suggest that you address the risk as a matter of priority.
Al Tamimi & Company’s Technology, Media & Telecommunications practice regularly handles matters involving data protection compliance, data breach notifications, and other issues relating to the digital economy. For further information, please contact Stuart Davies or Nick O’Connell.