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Welcome to the latest edition of Law Update titled “Rise of Generative AI.”
In this edition, we dive into the dynamic world of Technology, Media, and Telecommunications (TMT) across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. TMT continues to play a vital role in positioning the region as an international business and social hub, driving significant growth and innovation.
Our focus in this Law Update is on the sector’s ongoing potential to advance and propel the region toward a more digital economy. We explore the benefits of embracing a digital transformation and how local authorities have responded by enhancing regulations to accommodate the evolving TMT landscape.
This edition covers a range of topics, including – the new Telecommunications & Information Technology Law in Saudi Arabia, the intricacies of trademarks in the Metaverse, and the legal challenges faced by the video game industry. Additionally, we take a regional perspective, discussing jurisdictions such as Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Oman, and Bahrain to provide a comprehensive understanding of the TMT landscape.
We hope you thoroughly enjoy this packed issue of Law Update, filled with captivating articles that address key legal issues within a vital sector for the region.Read the full edition
It has sold all of the villas off plan, and the purchase and sale agreements contain a fixed date for handover. If the development company fails to handover the villas on the specified date, it will be in breach of the purchase and sale agreements and liable to the owners for damages and may lose the agreements should the buyers elect to terminate the purchase and sale agreements. The contractor completes 75% of the work but begins experiencing cash flow problems and, as a result, slows its performance. 60 days prior to the handover date, it becomes clear that the contractor will be unable to meet the deadlines. The development company reviews the FIDIC contract and wants to know what its options are, if any, to achieve a commercial outcome without loss of reputation and money.
What can the development company do?
Under an un-amended FIDIC contract the development company will have limited options to ensure it meets the fixed handover date or to limit its liability. The FIDIC contract lacks sufficient rights and powers for employers who need to manage time-sensitive projects where the contractor is in delay.
Assuming the delay to the programme is for a cause for which the contractor is not entitled to an extension to the Time for Completion, the engineer may instruct the contractor to accelerate its performance at the contractor’s own cost under clause 8.6. However, the contractor may not be in a position to accelerate its efforts especially where it is experiencing cash flow issues or has an insufficient workforce. Other than termination, the FIDIC contract does not provide for any sanctions to be imposed in instances where the contractor fails or refuses to accelerate after receiving instructions to do so. Termination of the contract may not be a solution as there will be delays in obtaining the necessary permits to complete the project and to have another contractor on site to carry out the work.
If the contractor’s delay continues and the employer misses the Time for Completion, the FIDIC contract at clause 8.7 entitles the employer to levy delay damages on the contractor for each day of delay after the stipulated Time for Completion until actual completion. The delay damages may allow the employer to mitigate any damage it may be liable to pay under other contracts however the FIDIC contract normally caps the delay damages that may be imposed on a contractor to a percentage of the contract price. This may still leave the employer exposed to liability while the work also remains incomplete. In the scenario above, the development company may be exposed to a much higher liability under the purchase and sale agreements than the total delay damages for which the contractor is liable under the construction contract.
The FIDIC general conditions allow the employer to step in to complete the works at the contractor’s cost only where the works are defective or if the contractor fails to rectify defective works during the defects liability period. Notably, the contract is silent as to the employer stepping in to complete the works where the contractor is delayed in performance. Any attempt by the employer to forcefully step in during a delay may have legal and criminal ramifications if the contractor resists the employer’s actions, and the employer resorts to force to enter the site.
The employer may issue a notice to correct and require the contractor correct the delay, failing which, the employer may terminate the contract for default. If the FIDIC contract has not been amended to include the proper references to the federal law, there is a further complication as the employer must obtain an order from a court or arbitral tribunal granting termination to lawfully terminate the contract in the UAE. In a worst case scenario, the contractor may claim it is owed money and exercise its rights at law to retain possession of the site preventing further work on the project until the decision in the arbitration is handed down several years later.
The employer may also consider initiating the dispute resolution process under the FIDIC contract however the processes in both the FIDIC 1987 and the 1999 construction contracts are protracted and require a determination by the engineer or the dispute adjudication board (which must be first appointed) to settle the dispute. These determinations may be challenged by either party and the parties must then commence arbitration to finally settle any disputes.
These mechanisms in the FIDIC contracts do not assist the time sensitive project, which could also include buildings with leases that are commencing, projects seeking to achieve a start date to make best use of the tourist season or landmark projects with announced completion times.
The employer with a time sensitive project should consider amending the FIDIC general conditions to add extra rights and powers to assist with managing the project. These amendments could include:
With the FIDIC contracts being widely used, it is a misconception that the contracts are suitable for and provide contractual parties sufficient coverage in terms of liability. For time sensitive projects special consideration is required to ensure that your rights as an employer are better protected.
Any changes need to be carefully drafted to ensure that the right outcome is achieved and that the terms are commercially acceptable. Our construction and infrastructure team at Al Tamimi can assist you manage these risks.
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