The final Law Update of 2022 is here, and it’s packed full of articles. The double edition features two focus areas, first is a spotlight on Energy and Resources and second we feature a collection of articles on Transport and Logistics. The developments occurring in these sectors in the MENA region are unprecedented and our lawyers cover vast themes for you.
The Energy and Resources focus features topics such as diversifying energy resources, solar PV, mining in the Middle East, renewable energy and green hydrogen. From a transport perspective, we draw attention to the Bahrain metro project, discuss the challenges and remedies associated with the repossession of an aircraft, and there is advice on what to consider should a party vary the terms of a shipping contract.
This edition navigates you through updates from across jurisdictions such as, Oman, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Iraq, Qatar, and the UAE. Each article is timely and provides insights into legal issues and cases that are affecting these sectors across the region.Read the full edition
June – July 2016
Disputes frequently arise during the course of performance of such contracts over matters of a largely technical nature. Although such disputes can be hard to pinpoint due to the very nature of the work and contracts involved, they generally tend to be centred on the following issues:
Such disputes are resolved in much the same manner as any normal court proceeding where the claimant files an action before the relevant court. Without delving too deep into the different kinds of courts and their functions, general rules in commercial disputes, which could apply in software cases, include jurisdiction being vested in the court in whose area the defendant has his domicile; or vested in the court in whose area the agreement was made or was performed in whole or in part; or vested in the court in whose area the contract should have been performed.
A common feature of these types of disputes is that the courts usually find themselves required to appoint a technical expert. This expert will review the case file based on the court’s mandate and advise on technical matters, depending on the nature of the dispute and the claims and defences asserted.
Article 69 of the Law of Proof in Civil and Commercial Transactions states:
“The Court may, when necessary, rule to appoint one or more experts from amongst the employees of the State or those listed in the register of experts, in order to seek their opinion to give insight on the issues on which judgment is to be made in the case. The Court shall determine the deposit which must be lodged with the Treasury Department of the Court on account of the expenses of the expert and his fees, the party who shall be required to lodge this deposit, and the time by which it must be lodged; also the amount which may be drawn by the expert towards his expenses.”
Expert evidence forms part of the overall evidence in the case on which the court may or may not rely. Article 90 of the Law of Proof states that:
“The opinion of the expert shall not bind the Court. If the Court rules in contradiction to the opinion of the expert, it shall show in its ruling the reasons which led it not to accept this opinion in full or in part.”
It is therefore very important that all the parties involved look at the expert’s credentials to make sure he has the necessary expertise and specialisation in the relevant area. Any incorrect or unsound opinions would reflect adversely on the expert’s conclusions and, ultimately, on the court’s ruling.
It is worth noting that Article 77 of the Law of Proof deals with the recusal (removal) of experts as follows:
“The adversaries shall be permitted to reject the expert if some reason pertaining to him makes it probable that he will be unable to perform his function without prejudice. In particular the expert may be rejected if he is a relative or in-law of one of the adversaries up to the fourth degree, the agent of one of them in his private business, his executor or guardian, if he works for one of the adversaries, or if he or his spouse has some current dispute with one of the adversaries in the case or with his spouse, provided this dispute has not arisen after the appointment of the expert with the aim of rejecting him.”
While the causes of removal under the above article relate principally to neutrality, there is nothing to preclude the parties from objecting to the court-appointed expert and seeking his removal on genuine and convincing grounds that his expertise has absolutely no bearing on the subject matter of the dispute and, therefore, he is unable to undertake the court’s mandate.
Ultimately, the court shall decide quickly on the application for rejection and the ruling issued on the request shall not be subject to appeal. If it refuses the request for rejection, the person making the request shall be subject to a fine of not less than two hundred dirhams and not more than five hundred dirhams.
In light of case law and practice, the following practical challenges for parties and court-appointed experts emerge:
Given the particularly important role that expert evidence plays in matters before the courts in the adjudication of purely technical matters, it is always advisable to draft clear and precise contracts whose essential terms are sufficiently certain to be enforceable. Contracts should clearly set out the work methods and time periods and receipt, inspection and acceptance procedures and variations should be set down in writing in the form of contracts or addenda that are sufficiently clear to avoid any issues down the line when a dispute reaches the courts.