The final Law Update of 2022 is here, and it’s packed full of articles. The double edition features two focus areas, first is a spotlight on Energy and Resources and second we feature a collection of articles on Transport and Logistics. The developments occurring in these sectors in the MENA region are unprecedented and our lawyers cover vast themes for you.
The Energy and Resources focus features topics such as diversifying energy resources, solar PV, mining in the Middle East, renewable energy and green hydrogen. From a transport perspective, we draw attention to the Bahrain metro project, discuss the challenges and remedies associated with the repossession of an aircraft, and there is advice on what to consider should a party vary the terms of a shipping contract.
This edition navigates you through updates from across jurisdictions such as, Oman, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Iraq, Qatar, and the UAE. Each article is timely and provides insights into legal issues and cases that are affecting these sectors across the region.Read the full edition
With approximately 56 Internet users per 100 inhabitants in the UAE recorded in December 2011, one might say that the UAE is a highly connected country. Surprisingly, however, some people in the media industry mistakenly think that the traditional media regulations do not apply to the online environment. Digital media content, like traditional media content, is the subject of extensive regulation in the UAE, and is actively enforced by the authorities. Contrary to popular belief, such regulations also apply to businesses in free zones. Given the pervasiveness and novel distribution methods of digital content and the growth of social media and networking sites, all media companies are well advised to familiarize themselves with the law and its practical application.
The Telecommunications Regulatory Authority
The Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA) implements an “Internet Access Management” (IAM) policy. The TRA monitors online content available to users in the UAE and will draw to the attention of website operators based in the UAE any potential breaches of the IAM policy. The content prohibited by the IAM policy encompasses that prohibited by the legislative regime discussed below, as well as internet content for hacking and malicious codes, internet content providing unlicensed VoIP services and internet content relating to terrorism. The TRA, in its IAM enforcement role, also monitors advertising online, including for example the advertising of medical products and services. Etisalat and Du, licensed telecommunication service providers in the UAE, provide users with access to the Internet. According to their licenses, these providers are required to block content online if requested to do so by the TRA.
The TRA is active in this enforcement role. A widely reported example was in 2009, when the TRA banned access to a cartoon clip on YouTube which was said to hurt religious and nationalist sentiments. A statement issued by the TRA at the time read: “The internet access management policy, published by the TRA, clearly identifies prohibited content categories, which both UAE internet service providers have published on their websites. Therefore, no content on the Internet is blocked unless it breaches IAM policy. As for YouTube, the TRA has instructed to block ‘part of its content’ that breaches the prohibited content categories of the IAM policy. However, there are clear and specific procedures to that, and both ISPs are compliant to these procedures.” A TRA official was quoted by Gulf News in its edition of 11 March 2009 as further saying: “It happens that some things can escape the proxy, especially clips with tags like a cartoon which in normal cases do not need to be blocked. But when the authority receives comments or feedback on a particular case, necessary action is taken promptly. In such cases, we ask the ISP’s to manually block the content.”
UAE Federal Publications and Publishing Law 1980
Federal Law No 15 for 1980 concerning Publications and Publishing (Publications Law) governs content, irrespective of whether the content is published digitally or via traditional mediums such as newspapers or magazines. The Publications Law regulates printing and publishing activities in the UAE and is broad enough to cover all forms of published content expression including television broadcasting. The Publications Law sets out matters that may not be published, including matters related to religion and politics, national security, individual rights and public morals. Other articles in the Publications Law set out the penalties imposed on the publishing company, as well as the editor or editor-in-chief in some instances, if found to have violated the provisions of the Publications Law.
Cyber-Crime Law 2006
While publishing companies and editors may be subject to penalties under the Publications Law, persons generally (including editors and journalists, as well as bloggers) may be subject to the penalties set out in Federal Law No 2 of 2006 on the Prevention of Information Technology Crimes (Cyber-Crime Law). This law was enacted by the UAE Federal Government to tackle cyber crimes and those persons who perpetrate them, and generally has a broader application than the Publications Law in the sense that it aims to deter abuses of technology generally. However, it does regulate digital content.
A new federal “Media Law”?
A draft of a new federal “Media Law” was made available for public comment in 2009 by the National Media Council. Public reports indicated that some examples of the changes in this new law included abolishing the criminal penalties (such as imprisonment) from being imposed on journalists; decreasing the number of violations for which media organizations may be liable; instructing government institutions to facilitate information flow to the media and to respond to their requests for information; and, providing journalists freedom from coercion to reveal sources. However, as far as we understand, that draft law has not yet been finalized nor enacted.
Does the legislative framework apply to media companies established in a Free Zone?
The short answer is yes. The National Media Council has stated that all media, audio-visual and print institutions in the UAE, including those in the free zones as well as onshore, shall comply with the standards for media content contained in the Publications Law, and other laws and regulations in force. While this statement serves to affirm the applicability of the Publications Law to media entities set up in free zones, it also sets out several criteria that media entities must comply with, including not to offend God and/or Islamic beliefs, respect for other monotheistic religions and respect for the cultural heritage of the UAE, its symbols and its political institutions.
Two predominant UAE media freezones – twofour54 in Abu Dhabi and TECOM in Dubai – each have their own codes of conduct and regulations applicable to entities set up in each freezone, which will apply in addition to the Federal laws set out above.