The final Law Update of 2022 is here, and it’s packed full of articles. The double edition features two focus areas, first is a spotlight on Energy and Resources and second we feature a collection of articles on Transport and Logistics. The developments occurring in these sectors in the MENA region are unprecedented and our lawyers cover vast themes for you.
The Energy and Resources focus features topics such as diversifying energy resources, solar PV, mining in the Middle East, renewable energy and green hydrogen. From a transport perspective, we draw attention to the Bahrain metro project, discuss the challenges and remedies associated with the repossession of an aircraft, and there is advice on what to consider should a party vary the terms of a shipping contract.
This edition navigates you through updates from across jurisdictions such as, Oman, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Iraq, Qatar, and the UAE. Each article is timely and provides insights into legal issues and cases that are affecting these sectors across the region.Read the full edition
December 2015 – January 2016
The last time (also the first time) a companies law was promulgated in the Kingdom was 1965 – a time when the average global price for a barrel of crude oil was USD 1.80 (USD 13.55 adjusted to 2015 prices), the oil shocks of the 1970s were in the future, the Gulf Cooperation Council had not yet been established and the internet was firmly in the realm of science fiction.
The old law has served Saudi Arabia through a period of transition – being the basis for company regulation during a period which has seen extensive and accelerating inward investment in the country together with the launch (in 1994) and subsequent reinvigoration (in 2007) of Tadawul – the domestic Saudi stock exchange.
However, what worked in 1965 is not necessarily fit-for-purpose in an era of global financial connectivity, volatility and fragility, shareholder activism and burgeoning corporate governance scandals.
Since 2002 a revised law has been under discussion – a process which was intended to take into account such innovations as Saudi accession to the World Trade Organization (achieved in 2005), the establishment of the Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority (SAGIA), the Saudi Industrial Property Authority and the Capital Market Authority. The process of agreeing and then enacting the new companies law has been protracted (but certainly comparable to developments around such keystone blocks of legislation in other jurisdictions), involving a multiplicity of stakeholders and experts.
The new Companies Law (1437H/2015G) was published by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry (MOCI) on 9 November 2015, published in the Saudi Gazette (Um Al-Qura) on 4 December 2015, and will come into effect on 2 May 2016. The new Companies Law completely replaces the old Companies Law. It will provide existing companies with a period of one year from its effective date to make such changes as are necessary to comply with the new Companies Law, subject to any new rules set in respect of such existing companies by the competent regulatory authorities.
Key innovations made by the new Companies Law are:
It is not yet clear if in the months ahead there will be any implementing regulations from MOCI, adding further depth to the new law, although this is anticipated. The practical implementation of the new law will doubtless have to cascade through other relevant agencies such as SAGIA and it will take some time for custom and practice to adjust. However, by trimming the length of the primary law and enabling more detail to be addressed through subordinate regulation, it is envisaged that in future the corporate legal framework will be more responsive to wider global trends in regulation.
Although perhaps not a sea change in the law, the revised package does offer some indication of where the Saudi economy might be headed (and will certainly have some impact on foreign investors’ deliberations around the nature of any permanent establishment in the country). In particular, the provisions relating to single shareholder LLCs, holding companies and company formation suggest that the process of establishing entities and group structures may be easier.
The provisions relating to debt instruments indicate that structured finance of infrastructure may be another avenue that is eased by the new law. This might be welcome news for those monitoring developments in terms of public private partnerships and privatizations, creating as it does, a corporate platform which is more familiar to the international market.
The ability to compartmentalize the assets of a group is also likely to be of interest – we envisage non-trading subsidiaries for proprietary assets (real and intellectual) might be considered (subject to satisfying applicable investment regulations).
The new law will certainly expand the toolkit available to investors, family businesses, shareholders and management as they craft their company structures and cultures. It will be subject to much scrutiny in the months ahead as advisers (including tax advisers) seek to understand and optimize the opportunities it affords (and in particular how it sits with the existing Foreign Investment Law). It may prompt some businesses to undertake an audit of their existing portfolios.
Some things however cannot change – it should always be remembered that the fundamental law of the Kingdom is the Sharia’h and that any law will be read and applied in that context. There is a clear preference for transparency of purpose in any company formation (and that applies to holding companies too) – exotic group structures with opaque risk profiles will continue to be critically scrutinized.
Clearly, the new law will bring with it implications and challenges – the ink is hardly dry yet. Al Tamimi & Co’s team of dedicated professionals in Riyadh and Jeddah will be pleased to assist you should further input be required.