This issue is filled with great insights and expert commentary on areas that are relevant to the legal landscape and highlight how the business community is embracing technology, media and telecommunications. There are various topics covered, from new ways of working and digital transformation in the finance sector to data protection regulatory updates and guidance. We also have a series of articles that focus on e-commerce across a number of jurisdictions.
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Hala Qutteineh - Associate - Corporate Structuring
Until recently, the only protection provided to consumers under Jordanian law was the concept of hidden defects where the vendor shall be held liable if the product was sold with a hidden defect. Indeed, vendors were still able to exclude themselves from liability for hidden defects.
Finally, the Consumer Protection Law (Law No. 17 of 2017) (the “Law”) has been passed in Jordan with the aim of preventing retailers from gaining an unfair advantage over consumers. The provisions of the Law require that vendors adhere to their responsibilities towards consumers to ensure that vendors and consumers are bargaining from a much more equal position.
The Law, as with any other consumer protection regulation, regulates private law relationships between individual consumers and retailers, as well as service-providers. Specifically, the Law addresses a wide range of matters, including but not limited to product liability, privacy rights, unfair trade practices and misrepresentation.
Misrepresentation or false advertising is often the main cause of consumer complaints. Prior to the enactment of the Law, the consumer had the right to bring a claim against a false advertiser for fraud pursuant to the Criminal Law (Law No. 16 of 1960). The claim required to establish that (i) the advertiser made false representations regarding the product; (ii) these representations were made with the advertiser’s knowledge or negligent failure to discover the falsehoods; and (iii) the consumer relied on the false advertisement and was harmed as a result. However, due to the difficulty in proving an advertiser’s dishonesty, prosecutors seldom relied on this legal route.
However, with the enactment of the Law, prosecutors in Jordan may commence lawsuits in respect of false advertisements or other unfair and injurious consumer practices in a much more straightforward manner.
Who is covered by the Law?
Article 2 of the Law stipulates that consumers include any natural or juristic persons that acquire a product whether in return of consideration or otherwise, for direct or indirect use or ownership.
The Law sets out the definition of ‘Consumer’ and stipulates that it does not include an individual who acquires the service or product for the purpose of resale. Therefore, the Law does not apply in the event of a dispute between vendors.
What is the scope of the Law?
The Law provides the consumer with effective protection from a vendor’s by:
Further to the above, it should be noted that the Law, renders any agreement or provision (i) limiting consumers’ rights arising pursuant to the Law or (ii) limiting or waiving the vendor or the service provider’s liability from its obligations; as null and void.
Further to the obligations imposed on the vendor, the Law lists certain contractual terms which should be deemed prejudicial and ultimately rendered null and void, these terms include those that:
Additionally, the Law called for the formation of the Consumer Protection Bureau, which shall promote consumer protections, help consumers make better choices in the marketplace and receive consumer complaints.
The aim behind the enactment of the Law is self-explanatory; to protect the consumer from unjust trade practices. Vendors are less likely to find a loophole that could possibly limit their liability and allow further profit-making mechanisms whilst taking advantage of consumers’ lack of information and bargaining power. Ensuring the welfare of the consumer is a major step towards creation of confidence within the market and encouraging inward investment in Jordan. We consider that the Law is a significant landmark for these reasons.