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Welcome to the latest edition of Law Update titled “Rise of Generative AI.”
In this edition, we dive into the dynamic world of Technology, Media, and Telecommunications (TMT) across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. TMT continues to play a vital role in positioning the region as an international business and social hub, driving significant growth and innovation.
Our focus in this Law Update is on the sector’s ongoing potential to advance and propel the region toward a more digital economy. We explore the benefits of embracing a digital transformation and how local authorities have responded by enhancing regulations to accommodate the evolving TMT landscape.
This edition covers a range of topics, including – the new Telecommunications & Information Technology Law in Saudi Arabia, the intricacies of trademarks in the Metaverse, and the legal challenges faced by the video game industry. Additionally, we take a regional perspective, discussing jurisdictions such as Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Oman, and Bahrain to provide a comprehensive understanding of the TMT landscape.
We hope you thoroughly enjoy this packed issue of Law Update, filled with captivating articles that address key legal issues within a vital sector for the region.Read the full edition
John Gaffney - Senior Counsel - Arbitration / Competition
Meteb AlGhashayan - Senior Associate - Litigation
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (“KSA”) has enacted the Executive Regulations of the Arbitration Law (“Executive Regulations”). The Executive Regulations were published in the Saudi Gazette and came into force on 9 June 2017. Arbitration in the KSA is governed by the Arbitration Regulation issued under Royal Decree No. M/34 dated 24/5/1433H (which corresponds to 16 April 2012 in the Gregorian calendar) (“Arbitration Law”). The Executive Regulations aim to clarify certain key provisions of the Arbitration Law.
Key Provisions of the Executive Regulations
The Executive Regulations clarify the following issues in the Arbitration Law.
The 2012 Arbitration Law aimed to codify an emerging pro-arbitration policy within the KSA. Alongside the Enforcement Law of 2013, the Arbitration Law heralded a number of key developments, including a reduced role for the Saudi courts in the conduct of arbitral proceedings and increased party autonomy. These developments have brought the KSA more in line with the international tenets of arbitration practice and will help develop it into one of the leading arbitration nations in the Arab world.
The Arbitration Law aims to create an independent and arbitration-friendly environment in the KSA. The Arbitration Law is largely based on the UNCITRAL Model Law, while still maintaining the essential principles of Shari’a. The parties are free to agree on a set of procedural rules to govern the arbitration; however, they must always ensure that they conduct the arbitration in accordance with the principles of Shari’a. The Arbitration Law applies to both international and domestic arbitrations within the KSA, and parties may choose the Arbitration Law to govern international commercial arbitration proceedings conducted outside of KSA.
The Executive Regulations are an important complementary source to the Arbitration Law, as they clarify a number of important issues. The Executive Regulations, when viewed in the context of a move away from earlier distrust in arbitration in the KSA to a gradual acceptance of arbitration as a dispute resolution method, represent a significant development for arbitration in the KSA by clarifying aspects of the Arbitration Law and helping to develop an arbitration-friendly environment in the jurisdiction.
There are, however, a number of areas that would benefit from further clarification. Under Article 2 of the Arbitration Law, for instance, all disputes are subject to arbitration with the exception of personal-status disputes and matters that are not subject to reconciliation. It would be helpful to clarify whether this exception is exhaustive (i.e., confirmation that all other disputes are permissible under the Arbitration Law). It would also help to clarify whether this provision applies to both domestic and international arbitration.
For example, it remains unclear whether real estate disputes are capable of being resolved by arbitration. The Law of Procedure before Shari’a Courts, which was enacted by Royal Decree No. M/1 dated 22/1/1435H (which corresponds to 16 April 2012 in the Gregorian calendar), made it clear that in real estate disputes, the competent court is the General Court where the real estate in dispute is located in the KSA. This strongly suggests that the Saudi courts have exclusive jurisdiction over real estate matters in the KSA. Hence, it would be helpful if future amendments to the Arbitration Law or to the Executive Regulations would clarify the position.
This is important since the Enforcement Law enacted by Royal Decree No. M/53 dated 17/4/1434H and its Executive Regulation Dated 17/4/1434H (which were passed after the Arbitration Law) provides that foreign judgments shall not be enforced in cases where Saudi courts have exclusive jurisdiction, e.g., in cases in rem involving real estate located in the KSA (Article 11.6 of the Executive Regulation). Article 12 of the Enforcement Law states that “[t]he provisions of the preceding Article shall be applicable to the arbitral awards issued in a foreign country”, which means that foreign arbitral awards issued in cases in rem involving real estate located inside KSA may not be enforceable in the KSA if indeed real estate disputes are not arbitrable.
In addition, a question mark remains over whether certain other commercial and civil disputes are arbitrable, such as rental disputes, insurance related disputes, commercial agency disputes, and civil and commercial disputes touching on mandatory rules of law and public policy. It would be helpful to clarify the position in order to avoid the confusion that has arisen on these points in other Middle Eastern states.
There is no doubt that the KSA is making significant strides to provide a comprehensive and independent approach to international arbitration. It has taken a significant step by designing the Arbitration Law and Executive Regulations in line with the international standards set out in the UNICTRAL Model Law. This brings further reassurance to foreign investors who have opted to resolve disputes related to their commercial dealings in the KSA by means of arbitration.
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