The final Law Update of 2022 is here, and it’s packed full of articles. The double edition features two focus areas, first is a spotlight on Energy and Resources and second we feature a collection of articles on Transport and Logistics. The developments occurring in these sectors in the MENA region are unprecedented and our lawyers cover vast themes for you.
The Energy and Resources focus features topics such as diversifying energy resources, solar PV, mining in the Middle East, renewable energy and green hydrogen. From a transport perspective, we draw attention to the Bahrain metro project, discuss the challenges and remedies associated with the repossession of an aircraft, and there is advice on what to consider should a party vary the terms of a shipping contract.
This edition navigates you through updates from across jurisdictions such as, Oman, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Iraq, Qatar, and the UAE. Each article is timely and provides insights into legal issues and cases that are affecting these sectors across the region.Read the full edition
Meteb AlGhashayan - Senior Associate - Litigation
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (“KSA”) has enacted the Executive Regulations of the Arbitration Law (“Executive Regulations”). The Executive Regulations were published in the Saudi Gazette and came into force on 9 June 2017. Arbitration in the KSA is governed by the Arbitration Regulation issued under Royal Decree No. M/34 dated 24/5/1433H (which corresponds to 16 April 2012 in the Gregorian calendar) (“Arbitration Law”). The Executive Regulations aim to clarify certain key provisions of the Arbitration Law.
Key Provisions of the Executive Regulations
The Executive Regulations clarify the following issues in the Arbitration Law.
The 2012 Arbitration Law aimed to codify an emerging pro-arbitration policy within the KSA. Alongside the Enforcement Law of 2013, the Arbitration Law heralded a number of key developments, including a reduced role for the Saudi courts in the conduct of arbitral proceedings and increased party autonomy. These developments have brought the KSA more in line with the international tenets of arbitration practice and will help develop it into one of the leading arbitration nations in the Arab world.
The Arbitration Law aims to create an independent and arbitration-friendly environment in the KSA. The Arbitration Law is largely based on the UNCITRAL Model Law, while still maintaining the essential principles of Shari’a. The parties are free to agree on a set of procedural rules to govern the arbitration; however, they must always ensure that they conduct the arbitration in accordance with the principles of Shari’a. The Arbitration Law applies to both international and domestic arbitrations within the KSA, and parties may choose the Arbitration Law to govern international commercial arbitration proceedings conducted outside of KSA.
The Executive Regulations are an important complementary source to the Arbitration Law, as they clarify a number of important issues. The Executive Regulations, when viewed in the context of a move away from earlier distrust in arbitration in the KSA to a gradual acceptance of arbitration as a dispute resolution method, represent a significant development for arbitration in the KSA by clarifying aspects of the Arbitration Law and helping to develop an arbitration-friendly environment in the jurisdiction.
There are, however, a number of areas that would benefit from further clarification. Under Article 2 of the Arbitration Law, for instance, all disputes are subject to arbitration with the exception of personal-status disputes and matters that are not subject to reconciliation. It would be helpful to clarify whether this exception is exhaustive (i.e., confirmation that all other disputes are permissible under the Arbitration Law). It would also help to clarify whether this provision applies to both domestic and international arbitration.
For example, it remains unclear whether real estate disputes are capable of being resolved by arbitration. The Law of Procedure before Shari’a Courts, which was enacted by Royal Decree No. M/1 dated 22/1/1435H (which corresponds to 16 April 2012 in the Gregorian calendar), made it clear that in real estate disputes, the competent court is the General Court where the real estate in dispute is located in the KSA. This strongly suggests that the Saudi courts have exclusive jurisdiction over real estate matters in the KSA. Hence, it would be helpful if future amendments to the Arbitration Law or to the Executive Regulations would clarify the position.
This is important since the Enforcement Law enacted by Royal Decree No. M/53 dated 17/4/1434H and its Executive Regulation Dated 17/4/1434H (which were passed after the Arbitration Law) provides that foreign judgments shall not be enforced in cases where Saudi courts have exclusive jurisdiction, e.g., in cases in rem involving real estate located in the KSA (Article 11.6 of the Executive Regulation). Article 12 of the Enforcement Law states that “[t]he provisions of the preceding Article shall be applicable to the arbitral awards issued in a foreign country”, which means that foreign arbitral awards issued in cases in rem involving real estate located inside KSA may not be enforceable in the KSA if indeed real estate disputes are not arbitrable.
In addition, a question mark remains over whether certain other commercial and civil disputes are arbitrable, such as rental disputes, insurance related disputes, commercial agency disputes, and civil and commercial disputes touching on mandatory rules of law and public policy. It would be helpful to clarify the position in order to avoid the confusion that has arisen on these points in other Middle Eastern states.
There is no doubt that the KSA is making significant strides to provide a comprehensive and independent approach to international arbitration. It has taken a significant step by designing the Arbitration Law and Executive Regulations in line with the international standards set out in the UNICTRAL Model Law. This brings further reassurance to foreign investors who have opted to resolve disputes related to their commercial dealings in the KSA by means of arbitration.