The first Law Update of 2024 is here, and our first focus of the year spotlights Healthcare and Lifesciences, a sector that is undergoing significant growth and development across the MENA region.
Our focus provides an insight into some of the most important regulatory updates across the region, such as the UAE’s groundbreaking law on the use of human genome, Kuwait’s resolution on nuclear and radioactive materials, the new regulations for healthcare services in Qatar, Egypt’s healthcare regulatory framework, and the impact of the Saudi Civil Transactions Law on the healthcare and life sciences sector … and there is so much more!
Beyond the healthcare pages our lawyers share with you multi-sector insights where you will discover articles on Dubai’s DIFC regulatory framework for startups, Bahrain’s commercial agencies law, and we also shed light on Kuwaiti civil code and the advantages of setting up a joint stock company in Saudi Arabia.Read the full edition
Ashraf Shoukri - Senior Counsel - Litigation
June – July 2017
Article 2 of the Penalties Law (Law No. 3 of 1987) states that “No person shall be held accountable for the crime of another person. An accused is innocent until proven guilty in accordance with law”. Rulings of the Court of Cassation have emphasised this point on multiple occasions.
Article 65(1) of the Penal Law (as amended) extends the principle that a person can only be accountable for his own acts by attributing criminal liability to legal bodies acting through their human agents: “Judicial persons, with the exception of governmental agencies and their official departments, public organisations, and establishments, are responsible for any criminal act committed, for their account or in their names by their representatives, directors, or agents.”
In a recent ruling of the Abu Dhabi Cassation Court dated 30 April 2017 in Penal Case No. 4542/2015, the principle that a person cannot be accountable for the acts of others was judicially examined. Al Tamimi and Company acted in this appeal.
The defendant was a holding company and special purpose vehicle. Its main, authorised commercial activity was the purchase and sale of shares in other companies. The acquired companies in turn became subsidiaries of the holding company. An employee of the subsidiary company was injured while repairing an aircraft engine when a steel object fell off the engine onto his hand. The treating hospital reported the matter to the police, who after completing their investigations referred the matter to the Public Prosecutor. The Public Prosecutor charged the holding company in respect of the injury, alleging that it had acted negligently in failing to take the necessary precautions for the safety of the employee.
The holding company based its defence on the liability of its subsidiary. Evidence showed the subsidiary was the injured man’s sponsor on his official residence visa and the injury occurred in the subsidiary’s engine maintenance department. The holding company argued it was not responsible for the subsidiary’s actions and could therefore not be held liable.
First Instance Decision
The Court of First Instance rejected this argument and convicted the holding company on the basis of the following:
The Court fined the holding company and ordered it to pay compensation to the injured worker.
Abu Dhabi Court of Appeal
The holding company appealed against this judgment on the following grounds:
The Appeal Court upheld the judgment of the First Instance Court and stated that it was satisfied by the reasons given by the latter, as well as the evidential basis for the conviction of the holding company. The Appeal Court did not address the arguments raised in the holding company’s defence.
Abu Dhabi Court of Cassation
Many commentators found the judgment of the Appeals Court disappointing, having expected that the case would assert the orthodox position on criminal liability. The holding company filed a further appeal to the Court of Cassation. The holding company sought an order remitting the case to the Appeal Court under Article 240 Penal Procedure Law for a retrial by alternative Judges. The alternative option was for the Court of Cassation to avoid remitting the case for retrial and deciding the case itself. However, such an order is rare and only happens when the Court of Cassation believes its intervention is necessary to settle a dispute decisively.
In reality, the reasons for challenging the Appeal Court’s decision before the Cassation Court were similar to those before the Appeal Court. However, the arguments before the Court of Cassation stressed the grave violation of the principle that a person is not accountable for another’s actions in terms of criminal liability and the implementation of the provisions of the Penal Law. They also stressed that the first instance and appeal courts had gravely erred in the implementation of law when they held the holding company’s liable for criminal acts committed by its subsidiary.
The Court of Cassation brought the appeal hearing forward as a matter of urgency given the public importance of the appeal points. The Court simultaneously considered the points of appeal raised by the Public Prosecutor.
The Court heard the holding company’s arguments that it should not be held responsible for the subsidiary’s actions given its separate legal personality and the holding company’s lack of substantive control over the subsidiary. In a rare move, the Court exercised its power under Article 249 of the Penal Procedures Law and decided to impose its own decision on the facts of the case without remitting the matter back to the lower courts. It upheld the holding company’s appeal and overturned the conviction.
The Court found:
“The context of Articles 2 and 65 of the Federal Penalties Law No. 3 of 1987 and the amendments thereto indicate that no person shall be held accountable for the crime of another person, and that legal persons are criminally responsible for the crimes committed by their representatives, directors, or agents thereof for the account and in the name thereof exclusively. The challenged judgment has violated the requirements of such articles and as such, it has violated the law and erred in the interpretation and implementation thereof.”
The Court of Cassation thereby stood for the principles that no person shall be held accountable for the crime of another and that an accused is innocent until proven guilty in accordance with law. It also restated the conventional position that a company is a legal person, independent from its shareholders, and with its own financial liability.
Al Tamimi & Company’s litigation team in Abu Dhabi regularly advises on criminal matters. For further information please contact Ashraf Shoukri (firstname.lastname@example.org).