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Welcome to the latest edition of Law Update titled “Rise of Generative AI.”
In this edition, we dive into the dynamic world of Technology, Media, and Telecommunications (TMT) across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. TMT continues to play a vital role in positioning the region as an international business and social hub, driving significant growth and innovation.
Our focus in this Law Update is on the sector’s ongoing potential to advance and propel the region toward a more digital economy. We explore the benefits of embracing a digital transformation and how local authorities have responded by enhancing regulations to accommodate the evolving TMT landscape.
This edition covers a range of topics, including – the new Telecommunications & Information Technology Law in Saudi Arabia, the intricacies of trademarks in the Metaverse, and the legal challenges faced by the video game industry. Additionally, we take a regional perspective, discussing jurisdictions such as Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Oman, and Bahrain to provide a comprehensive understanding of the TMT landscape.
We hope you thoroughly enjoy this packed issue of Law Update, filled with captivating articles that address key legal issues within a vital sector for the region.Read the full edition
Ammar Haykal - Partner, Head of Office - Ras Al Khaimah - Litigation
Adnan Al Erqsousi - Senior Associate - Litigation
These might be, for example, where the Tribunal has ruled on matters that fall outside what is covered by the arbitral agreement, or where one of the parties was not informed of the process. A party cannot simply argue that the Tribunal got the decision wrong or misunderstood the law.
The exception is public policy. If it is alleged that an award breaches the rules of public policy, the Court must examine the substantive aspects of the award or the extent of its conformity with the law. Conformity with public policy is one of the most fundamental requirements of all legal acts and rulings, whether judicial or arbitral.
Public policy has no conclusive definition in UAE law, but it essentially relates to those rules and norms that are deemed so essential that a failure to comply would do damage to the public good or the state’s sovereignty. Any contract or award that breaches public policy is to be set aside or voided.
The question whether an award was deemed to be against public policy was recently considered by the Dubai Court of Cassation in Civil Appeal For Cassation No. 275 of 2014. The Court concluded that certain issues relating to the ownership of real estate property in the UAE were an issue of public importance which must be adjudicated by the local courts rather than adjudicated on arbitrators or made subject to a private settlement agreement. Therefore, the Court intervened to review the merits of the case and the grounds on which the arbitration award was issued, but ultimately found that the award had not breached public policy and would be recognized and enforced.
Summary of case
In 2007, the Claimant (who is not a GCC citizen) entered into a share sale and purchase agreement (“SPA”) with the Respondent (a citizen of Saudi Arabia) pursuant to which the Claimant sold the Respondent 25% of his shares in a real estate company resulting in the Respondent thereafter holding 75% of the shares and the Claimant holding the remaining 25%. A dispute arose between the parties over the performance of the obligations under the SPA and, in accordance with the dispute resolution provisions of the SPA, the Claimant filed a claim with the Dubai International Arbitration Centre (DIAC) to resolve the dispute and to nullify the SPA.
The arbitrators determined that the SPA was valid and ordered the Claimant to pay the Respondent compensation in accordance with the Respondent’s counterclaims.
The Claimant then filed a case with the First Instance in Dubai to nullify the award.
Court of First Instance and Court of Appeal
The Court of First Instance in Dubai ruled that the award had been issued pursuant to a valid arbitral procedure and was valid.
The Claimant appealed, but the Court of Appeal in Dubai upheld the judgment of the Court of First Instance.
Court of Cassation
The Claimant appealed to the Court of Cassation on the grounds that the arbitration tribunal exceeded its authority by deciding matters relating to public policy. It argued that:
The Court of Cassation rejected the appeal and upheld the award.
The Court explained that the Unified Economic Agreement between the Countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (ratified by the UAE by Decree No. 55 of 2002) granted all GCC natural and legal citizens the same treatment as UAE citizens including all economic activities, especially the engagement in all economic, investment and service activities, stock ownership and company formation. Law No. 7 of 2006 concerning property registration in Dubai provides that the right to own property in the Emirate of Dubai shall be restricted to UAE and GCC nationals and to companies incorporated properly in the UAE. However the Court found that the company was in fact properly set up in the UAE with one of its shareholders being a GCC national holding a minimum of 51% of the share capital. It was not restricted from owning property in Dubai or trading or buying shares and setting up companies.
As regards the failure to register the properties, the Claimant initiated the arbitration to claim for compensation for alleged damages, loss of profit or loss of opportunity and neither party pleaded at that time that the agreements were void for not being registered on the Interim Real Estate Register. Accordingly, the arbitration tribunal only reviewed and determined the issues before it and did not consider the issues of the validity of the agreements or expatriating property and only concluded the factual findings that since 51% of the company’s shares were owned by a GCC citizen then it would not contravene the Companies Law.
The Court of Cassation therefore concluded that the award did not contravene Public Policy and found that the Claimant’s argument in this regard were baseless and to be dismissed.
This judgment is a timely reminder that the UAE Courts, in common with all national courts, have a duty to consider any allegations made that an award contravenes public policy. Such allegations may then necessitate a review of the merits of the award that ordinarily the court would not do. This does not however mean that the Court will abuse this power to find ways to negate the award, as is sometimes feared. As can be seen in this case, the Court considered and rejected the allegations, and upheld the award.
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