The final Law Update of 2022 is here, and it’s packed full of articles. The double edition features two focus areas, first is a spotlight on Energy and Resources and second we feature a collection of articles on Transport and Logistics. The developments occurring in these sectors in the MENA region are unprecedented and our lawyers cover vast themes for you.
The Energy and Resources focus features topics such as diversifying energy resources, solar PV, mining in the Middle East, renewable energy and green hydrogen. From a transport perspective, we draw attention to the Bahrain metro project, discuss the challenges and remedies associated with the repossession of an aircraft, and there is advice on what to consider should a party vary the terms of a shipping contract.
This edition navigates you through updates from across jurisdictions such as, Oman, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Iraq, Qatar, and the UAE. Each article is timely and provides insights into legal issues and cases that are affecting these sectors across the region.Read the full edition
Abdullah Masud - Associate - Banking and Finance
Such clauses are generally premised on the concern that upon termination of the agreement or an employment relationship, the covenanted party may walk away with company secrets, or work for a competitor, or start a business with a competitive edge gained from the terminated agreement or relationship. However, too broad a non-compete clause or CNC may prohibit a covenanted party from legitimately practising his trade or making a living. Therefore, in order to protect the parties, a non-compete clause or CNC may contain reasonable limitations as to the geographical area and time period in which the covenanted party may not compete. However, under Kuwait law, any non-compete clause or CNC is viewed as a constraint on a person’s right to work or practise their trade and as such is unenforceable both under the law and as a matter of public policy. Such clauses are governed by Law No. 10 for the Year 2007 (the “Competition Law”), which came into effect on 9 August 2009. Generally, the aim of the Competition Law is to protect economic activity from harmful practices that result in unfair competition. Under Article 4 of the Competition Law, the following activities are considered to be harmful to competition and therefore prohibited:
Applicability of the Law
Article 4 of the Competition Law provides that “Preventing or hindering a competitor from conducting business in the market” is a violation of the Competition Law. As such, a strict reading of this article infers that any non-compete clause or CNC will be invalid.
As a general matter, Article 3 of the Competition Law not only applies to unfair competition violations that take place inside Kuwait, but also those that are committed abroad and harm fair competition in Kuwait.
The Competition Law does not cover all areas of economic activity. The following areas of economic activity are exempted from the scope of the law:
Authority for Competition
The Competition Law also establishes an authoritative body, the Authority for the Protection of Competition (the “Authority”), which is tasked with engaging in a review of competitive activities and approving or denying the same. More specifically, the powers of the Authority include the following:
Furthermore, any person may inform the Authority of unfair practices.
Mergers and Acquisitions
Under the Competition Law, mergers and acquisitions, which lead to an increase in the direct or indirect control of a particular market and that control represents more than 35% of the relevant market, are subject to the review of the Authority.
If the 35% threshold is met, the process for review is as follows:
Penalties for violating the Competition Law are set out at Articles 19 to 22 of the Competition Law. Violators of the Competition Law may be fined KD 100,000 or the amount of the illegally acquired gain, whichever is greater. If the offence is repeated, the fine is doubled. Goods involved in the activity may also be confiscated. Furthermore, the violating activity may also be restricted for a maximum period of three years.
Competition is a key feature of a free market and promotes innovation and growth. The Competition Law expands upon previous Kuwaiti regulations on illegal competition violations and monopoly and further protects economic activity in Kuwait from the harmful effects of unfair competition.