The final Law Update of 2022 is here, and it’s packed full of articles. The double edition features two focus areas, first is a spotlight on Energy and Resources and second we feature a collection of articles on Transport and Logistics. The developments occurring in these sectors in the MENA region are unprecedented and our lawyers cover vast themes for you.
The Energy and Resources focus features topics such as diversifying energy resources, solar PV, mining in the Middle East, renewable energy and green hydrogen. From a transport perspective, we draw attention to the Bahrain metro project, discuss the challenges and remedies associated with the repossession of an aircraft, and there is advice on what to consider should a party vary the terms of a shipping contract.
This edition navigates you through updates from across jurisdictions such as, Oman, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Iraq, Qatar, and the UAE. Each article is timely and provides insights into legal issues and cases that are affecting these sectors across the region.Read the full edition
Sarah El Serafy
The QCB Regulations set the SWIFT system for the interbank dealings e.g. in relation to the messages of the daily inter-bank payments, the message no.”MT203” or “MT202” should be used to transfer any amount from the clearing account of the bank to one or more of the banks operating in Qatar. No other messages will be accepted for this purpose. In addition, the field “58A” should be used to indicate the beneficiary bank. If the beneficiary bank is not a Swift system user, the field “58D” should be used according to the bank’s identification symbol.
According to the QCB Regulations, the bank issuing the SWIFT message will be liable for sending the messages correctly. All banks should liaise with the Banking, Payment and Settlement Systems Department of the QCB to be advised of the updated technical details for sending SWIFT messages.
If a SWIFT message is issued clearly and in line with the QCB Regulations in relation to each type of dealing, it shall have a binding effect on the sending bank.
The TELEX system is also considered an alternative by QCB for banks that are not yet set up with the SWIFT system.
The E-Commerce Law provisions apply to transactions between parties who agree to conduct transactions using electronic communications. The law defines electronic communication as any transmission, emission or reception of signs, signals, writing, images, sounds, pictures, data or information of any kind by wire, radio, optical, other electromagnetic means of communications or any other similar means of communication. This definition is broad enough to cover SWIFT messages being a way of transmitting data.
The law excludes governmental entities from the above rule by stating that governmental entities shall give explicit consent in relation to electronic transactions of which they are a party. This also indicates that the electronic communication implies the consent of the parties and accordingly should be binding on them, except for governmental entities who must give their explicit consent.
Article 4 of the E-Commerce Law further elaborates on the contract formation for conducting transactions, that an offer or acceptance of an offer may be expressed, in whole or in part, by means of electronic communications.
A contract or transaction shall not be denied validity or enforceability solely on the grounds that one or more electronic communications were used in its formation.
In light of the above, SWIFT messages are a valid and legally binding method of communication between the banks, provided that the QCB Regulations and the E-Commerce Law provisions are observed in relation to each type of dealing.